Table of Contents

  1. はじめに
  2. 1対1の通信
    1. 利用者の為のガイドライン
      1. 電子メール
      2. 会話
    2. 管理者の為のガイドライン
  3. 1対多の通信
    1. 利用者の為のガイドライン
      1. メーリングリストとネットニュース全般
      2. メーリングリスト
      3. ネットニュース
    2. 管理者の為のガイドライン
      1. 一般的問題
      2. メーリングリスト
      3. ネットニュース
    3. 議長の為のガイドライン
      1. 一般的な事
  4. 情報サービス
    1. 利用者の為のガイドライン
      1. 一般的な事
      2. リアルタイム対話サービス
    2. 管理者の為のガイドライン
      1. 一般的な事
  5. 推奨文献目録
  6. セキュリティの考慮
  7. 著者のアドレス

3.0 One-to-Many Communication (Mailing Lists, NetNews)

   Any time you engage in One-to-Many communications, all the rules for
   mail should also apply.  After all, communicating with many people
   via one mail message or post is quite analogous to communicating with
   one person with the exception of possibly offending a great many more
   people than in one-to-one communication.  Therefore, it's quite
   important to know as much as you can about the audience of your


3.1 User Guidelines

3.1.1 General Guidelines for mailing lists and NetNews

    - Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before
      you post anything.  This helps you to get an understanding of
      the culture of the group.


    - Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the
      system users.


    - Consider that a large audience will see your posts.
      That may include your present or your next boss.  Take
      care in what you write.  Remember too, that mailing lists and
      Newsgroups are frequently archived, and that your words may be
      stored for a very long time in a place to which many people have


    - Assume that individuals speak for themselves, and what they
      say does not represent their organization (unless stated


    - Remember that both mail and news take system resources.  Pay
      attention to any specific rules covering their uses your
      organization may have.


    - Messages and articles should be brief and to the point.  Don't
      wander off-topic, don't ramble and don't send mail or post
      messages solely to point out other people's errors in typing
      or spelling.  These, more than any other behavior, mark you
      as an immature beginner.


    - Subject lines should follow the conventions of the group.


    - Forgeries and spoofing are not approved behavior.


    - Advertising is welcomed on some lists and Newsgroups, and abhorred
      on others!  This is another example of knowing your audience
      before you post.  Unsolicited advertising which is completely
      off-topic will most certainly guarantee that you get a lot of
      hate mail.


    - If you are sending a reply to a message or a posting be sure you
      summarize the original at the top of the message, or include just
      enough text of the original to give a context.  This will make
      sure readers understand when they start to read your response.
      Since NetNews, especially, is proliferated by distributing the
      postings from one host to another, it is possible to see a
      response to a message before seeing the original.  Giving context
      helps everyone.  But do not include the entire original!


    - Again, be sure to have a signature which you attach to your
      message.  This will guarantee that any peculiarities of mailers or
      newsreaders which strip header information will not delete the
      only reference in the message of how people may reach you.


    - Be careful when you reply to messages or postings.  Frequently
      replies are sent back to the address which originated the post -
      which in many cases is the address of a list or group!  You may
      accidentally send a personal response to a great many people,
      embarrassing all involved.  It's best to type in the address
      instead of relying on "reply."


    - Delivery receipts, non-delivery notices, and vacation programs
      are neither totally standardized nor totally reliable across the
      range of systems connected to Internet mail.  They are invasive
      when sent to mailing lists, and some people consider delivery
      receipts an invasion of privacy.  In short, do not use them.


     - If you find a personal message has gone to a list or group, send
       an apology to the person and to the group.


     - If you should find yourself in a disagreement with one person,
       make your responses to each other via mail rather than continue to
       send messages to the list or the group.  If you are debating a
       point on which the group might have some interest, you may
       summarize for them later.


    - Don't get involved in flame wars.  Neither post nor respond
      to incendiary material.


    - Avoid sending messages or posting articles which are no more than
      gratuitous replies to replies.


    - Be careful with monospacing fonts and diagrams.  These will
      display differently on different systems, and with different
      mailers on the same system.


    - There are Newsgroups and Mailing Lists which discuss topics
      of  wide varieties of interests.  These represent a diversity of
      lifestyles, religions, and cultures.  Posting articles or sending
      messages to a group whose point of view is offensive to you
      simply to tell them they are offensive is not acceptable.
      Sexually and racially harassing messages may also have legal
      implications.  There is software available to filter items
      you might find objectionable.


3.1.2 Mailing List Guidelines

   There are several ways to find information about what mailing lists
   exist on the Internet and how to join them.  Make sure you understand
   your organization's policy about joining these lists and posting to
   them.  In general it is always better to check local resources first
   before trying to find information via the Internet.  Nevertheless,
   there are a set of files posted periodically to news.answers which
   list the Internet mailing lists and how to subscribe to them.  This
   is an invaluable resource for finding lists on any topic.  See also
   references [9,13,15] in the Selected Bibliography.


    - Send subscribe and unsubscribe messages to the appropriate
      address.  Although some mailing list software is smart enough
      to catch these, not all can ferret these out.  It is your
      responsibility to learn how the lists work, and to send the
      correct mail to the correct place.  Although many many mailing
      lists adhere to the convention of having a "-request" alias for
      sending subscribe and unsubscribe messages, not all do.  Be sure
      you know the conventions used by the lists to which you subscribe.


    - Save the subscription messages for any lists you join.  These
      usually tell you how to unsubscribe as well.


    - In general, it's not possible to retrieve messages once you have
      sent them.  Even your system administrator will not be able to get
      a message back once you have sent it.  This means you must make
      sure you really want the message to go as you have written it.


    - The auto-reply feature of many mailers is useful for in-house
      communication, but quite annoying when sent to entire mailing
      lists. Examine "Reply-To" addresses when replying to messages
      from lists.  Most auto-replys will go to all members of the


    - Don't send large files to mailing lists when Uniform
      Resource Locators (URLs) or pointers to ftp-able versions
      will do.  If you want to send it as multiple files, be
      sure to follow the culture of the group.  If you don't
      know what that is, ask.


    - Consider unsubscribing or setting a "nomail" option (when it's
      available) when you cannot check your mail for an extended


    - When sending a message to more than one mailing list, especially
      if the lists are closely related, apologize for cross-posting.


    - If you ask a question, be sure to post a summary.  When doing so,
      truly summarize rather than send a cumulation of the messages you


    - Some mailing lists are private.  Do not send mail to these lists
      uninvited.  Do not report mail from these lists to a wider


    - If you are caught in an argument, keep the discussion focused on
      issues rather than the personalities involved.


3.1.3 NetNews Guidelines

   NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to
   communicate on topics of specific interest.  It is divided into
   hierarchies, with the major divisions being: sci - science related
   discussions; comp - computer related discussions; news - for
   discussions which center around NetNews itself; rec - recreational
   activities; soc - social issues; talk - long-winded never-ending
   discussions; biz - business related postings; and alt - the alternate
   hierarchy.  Alt is so named because creating an alt group does not go
   through the same process as creating a group in the other parts of
   the hierarchy.  There are also regional hierarchies, hierarchies
   which are widely distributed such as Bionet, and your place of
   business may have its own groups as well.  Recently, a "humanities"
   hierarchy was added, and as time goes on its likely more will be
   added.  For longer discussions on News see references [2,8,22,23] in
   the Selected Bibliography.


    - In NetNews parlance, "Posting" refers to posting a new article
      to a group, or responding to a post someone else has posted.
      "Cross-Posting" refers to posting a message to more than one
      group.  If you introduce Cross-Posting to a group, or if you
      direct "Followup-To:" in the header of your posting, warn
      readers!  Readers will usually assume that the message was
      posted to a specific group and that followups will go to
      that group.  Headers change this behavior.


    - Read all of a discussion in progress (we call this a thread)
      before posting replies.  Avoid posting "Me Too" messages,
      where content is limited to agreement with previous posts.
      Content of a follow-up post should exceed quoted content.

返信をする前に、全ての進行中の議論――スレッドと呼ぶ――を読むべきである。前投稿に対して同意を示す内容しかないMe Tooメッセージを投稿してはならない。フォローアップを目的とした内容の投稿は、引用された内容を発展させたものであるべきだ。

    - Send mail when an answer to a question is for one person only.
      Remember that News has global distribution and the whole world
      probably is NOT interested in a personal response.  However, don't
      hesitate to post when something will be of general interest to the
      Newsgroup participants.


    - Check the "Distribution" section of the header, but don't
      depend on it.  Due to the complex method by which News is
      delivered, Distribution headers are unreliable.  But, if you
      are posting something which will be of interest to a limited
      number or readers, use a distribution line that attempts to
      limit the distribution of your article to those people.  For
      example, set the Distribution to be "nj" if you are posting
      an article that will be of interest only to New Jersey readers.


    - If you feel an article will be of interest to more than one
      Newsgroup, be sure to CROSSPOST the article rather than individually
      post it to those groups.  In general, probably only five-to-six
      groups will have similar enough interests to warrant this.


    - Consider using Reference sources (Computer Manuals, Newspapers,
      help files) before posting a question.  Asking a Newsgroup where
      answers are readily available elsewhere generates grumpy "RTFM"
      (read the fine manual - although a more vulgar meaning of the
      word beginning with "f" is usually implied) messages.


    - Although there are Newsgroups which welcome advertising,
      in general it is considered nothing less than criminal
      to advertise off-topic products.  Sending an advertisement
      to each and every group will pretty much guarantee your loss of


    - If you discover an error in your post, cancel it as soon as


    - DO NOT attempt to cancel any articles but your own.  Contact
      your administrator if you don't know how to cancel your post,
      or if some other post, such as a chain letter, needs canceling.


    - If you've posted something and don't see it immediately,
      don't assume it's failed and re-post it.


    - Some groups permit (and some welcome) posts which in other
      circumstances would be considered to be in questionable taste.
      Still, there is no guarantee that all people reading the group
      will appreciate the material as much as you do.  Use the Rotate
      utility (which rotates all the characters in your post by 13
      positions in the alphabet) to avoid giving offense.   The
      Rot13 utility for Unix is an example.

グループの中には、他の環境では疑問視されるやうな内容の投稿を許可――更に歓迎――するものがある。ただ、全ての人が貴方と同じやうにそのグループの記事を評価してくれる保証は何処にも無い。不要な攻撃を避ける為にはRotate utility――投稿の中の全ての文字をアルファベット順に十三文字分移動させるツール――を使ふと良い。例へば、UnixにはRot13と云ふツールがある。

    - In groups which discuss movies or books it is considered essential
      to mark posts which disclose significant content as "Spoilers".
      Put this word in your Subject: line.  You may add blank lines to
      the beginning of your post to keep content out of sight, or you
      may Rotate it.


    - Forging of news articles is generally censured. You can protect
      yourself from forgeries by using software which generates a
      manipulation detection "fingerprint", such as PGP (in the US).


    - Postings via anonymous servers are accepted in some Newsgroups
      and disliked in others.  Material which is inappropriate when
      posted under one's own name is still inappropriate when posted


    - Expect a slight delay in seeing your post when posting to a
      moderated group.  The moderator may change your subject
      line to have your post conform to a particular thread.


    - Don't get involved in flame wars.  Neither post nor respond
      to incendiary material.


3.2 Administrator Guidelines

3.2.1 General Issues

    - Clarify any policies your site has regarding its subscription
      to NetNews groups and about subscribing to mailing lists.


    - Clarify any policies your site has about posting to NetNews
      groups or to mailing lists, including use of disclaimers in .sigs.


    - Clarify and publicize archive policy.  (How long are articles


    - Investigate accusations about your users promptly and with an
      open mind.


    - Be sure to monitor the health of your system.


    - Consider how long to archive system logs, and publicize your
      policy on logging.


3.2.2 Mailing Lists

    - Keep mailing lists up to date to avoid the "bouncing mail" problem.

"bouncing mail"問題を回避するために、メーリングリストは最新の状態に保たなければならない。

    - Help list owners when problems arise.


    - Inform list owners of any maintenance windows or planned downtime.


    - Be sure to have "-request" aliases for list subscription and


    - Make sure all mail gateways operate smoothly.


3.2.3. NetNews

    - Publicize the nature of the feed you receive.  If you do not get
      a full feed, people may want to know why not.


    - Be aware that the multiplicity of News Reader clients may cause
      the News Server being blamed for problems in the clients.


    - Honor requests from users immediately if they request cancellation
      of their own posts or invalid posts, such as chain letters.


    - Have "Usenet", "Netnews" and "News" aliased and make sure someone
      reads the mail.


3.3 Moderator Guidelines

3.3.1 General Guidelines

    - Make sure your Frequestly Asked Questions (FAQ) is posted at
      regular intervals.  Include your guidelines for articles/messages.
      If you are not the FAQ maintainer, make sure they do so.


    - Make sure you maintain a good welcome message, which contains
      subscribe and unsubscribe information.


    - Newsgroups should have their charter/guidelines posted


    - Keep mailing lists and Newsgroups up to date. Post
      messages in a timely fashion.  Designate a substitute
      when you go on vacation or out of town.



Copyright (C) 2006 七鍵 key@do.ai 初版:2006年04月03日 最終更新:2006年04月03日